When Ford took office, the U.S. economy entered a phase of stagflation that economists attributed to various causes, including the 1973 oil crisis and increasing competition from countries like Japan. [60] Stagflation disoriented traditional economic theories of the 1970s, as economists generally believed that an economy would not experience both inflation and low growth rates. Traditional economic remedies for sluggish economic growth, such as tax cuts and increased spending, risked worsening inflation. The conventional response to inflation, higher taxes and reduced public spending risked hurting the economy. [61] The economic problems that marked the end of the post-war boom created an opening to a challenge for the dominant Keynesian economy, and laissez-faire advocates such as Alan Greenspan gained influence within the Ford administration. Ford took the initiative, abandoned 40 years of orthodoxy and introduced a new conservative economic agenda in an attempt to adapt the traditional republican economy to new economic challenges. [60] [62] George Washington lived only two years after he left the presidency. Mount Vernon had been neglected for decades, and Washington spent most of its remaining days making it regenerative and functional.

However, when relations with France deteriorated in mid-1799, the former president was reappointed to the public office when President Adams Washington was appointed commander of the U.S. Army. But the former general was now showing his age, and his duties were limited to largely symbolic tasks. He insisted on leaving control of the army to Hamilton. The third year of the revolution was its turning point. Another continental force, under the command of General Horatio Gates, won the first significant American victory at Saratoga, New York. This victory convinced the French that the revolution was winnable for the Americans. They began to consider an alliance with the colonial rebels, partly to return to an old enemy, England, and partly to participate in the prices of attacks against British ships.

At the same time, the British began an ill-fated military strategy, involving an invasion of the southern colonies, subjecting them to guerrilla warfare. By the end of the American Revolution, John Adams had acquired a solid reputation as a patriot who had served his country at considerable personal sacrifice. He was known as a brilliant and outspoken man with an independent mind. He also gained a reputation for the essays he published in the 1770s and 1780s. His “thoughts on government” (1776) argued that the various functions of government – the executive, the judiciary and the legislature – should be separated to prevent tyranny. His defence of the constitutions of the United States of America (1787) presented his hypothesis that the greatest dangers to any policy were unbridled democracy and a frantic aristocracy capable of becoming an oligarchy. The antidote to these dangers was a strong executive. He referred to this powerful executive as the “father and protector” of the nation and its ordinary citizens, because that person was the only official with the independence to act in a selfless manner. In 1790 he expanded this theme in a series of essays for a newspaper in Philadelphia, which were eventually known as the “Speech on Davila.” Many contemporaries mistakenly believed that they supported a hereditary monarchy for the United States. Martha Washington had two young children from the first marriage, Martha and John.