The convention has become a legal framework for maritime and maritime activities and IUCN is working with its partners to conclude an enforcement agreement (UNCLOS IA) that will fill significant governance gaps. A positive result would measure the protection and conservation of areas beyond the national jurisdiction (ABNJ) where there are none at present. In 1960, the United Nations held the second United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (CNUNS II); However, the Geneva conference, which has been held for six weeks, has not created any new agreements. [12] In general, developing and third world countries participated only as customers, allies or dependent on the United States or the Soviet Union, without having a meaningful voice. [14] In 2017, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted to convene an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) to examine the creation of a legally binding international instrument (ILBI) for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity outside the national jurisdiction (BBNJ). The Intergovernmental Conference will meet for a series of four sessions between 2018 and 2020 to move towards an agreement. [25] At the beginning of the 20th century, some nations expressed their desire to expand national demands: the inclusion of mineral resources, the protection of fish stocks and the provision of pollution control. (The League of Nations convened a conference in The Hague in 1930, but no agreement was reached. [6] By applying the principle of a nation`s international law to the protection of its natural resources, President Harry S. Truman extended control of the United States in 1945 to all natural resources on his continental shelf.

Other nations quickly followed suit. Between 1946 and 1950, Chile, Peru and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) to cover their Humboldt-Strom fisheries. Other nations extended their coastal seas to 22 km. [7] The United States objected to the provisions of Part XI of the Convention for several reasons and argued that the treaty was unfavourable to the economic and security interests of the United States. Because of Part XI, the United States refused to ratify UNCLOS when it agreed with the other provisions of the convention. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also known as the Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an international convention that emerged from the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), held between 1973 and 1982. The Convention establishes the rights and obligations of nations with regard to the exploitation of the oceans, establishes guidelines for businesses, the environment and the management of the natural resources of the sea.